List of wind turbine manufacturers Since many turbine manufacturing leaders have opened U. In total, 70 manufacturing facilities have begun production, been expanded, or announced since January Many existing companies in traditional manufacturing states have retooled to enter the wind industry.
Generation of tidal energy[ edit ] Variation of tides over a day Main articles: Tide and Tidal acceleration Tidal power is taken from the Earth's oceanic tides.
Tidal forces are periodic variations in gravitational attraction exerted by celestial bodies. These forces create corresponding motions or currents in the world's oceans. Due to the strong attraction to the oceans, a bulge in the water level is created, causing a temporary increase in sea level.
As the Earth rotates, this bulge of ocean water meets the shallow water adjacent to the shoreline and creates a tide. This occurrence takes place in an unfailing manner, due to the consistent pattern of the moon's orbit around the earth.
Tidal power is the only technology that draws on energy inherent in the orbital characteristics of the Earth — Moon system, and to a lesser extent in the Earth— Sun system. Other natural energies exploited by human technology originate directly or indirectly with the Sun, including fossil The ocean powe energyconventional hydroelectricwindbiofuelwave and solar energy.
Greater tidal variation and higher tidal current velocities can dramatically increase the potential of a site for tidal electricity generation.
Because the Earth's tides are ultimately due to gravitational interaction with the Moon and Sun and the Earth's rotation, tidal power is practically inexhaustible and classified as a renewable energy resource. Movement of tides causes a loss of mechanical energy in the Earth—Moon system: This loss of energy has caused the rotation of the Earth to slow in the 4.
While tidal power will take additional energy from the system, the effect[ clarification needed ] is negligible and would only be noticed over millions of years. Tidal power can be classified into four generating methods: Tidal stream generator[ edit ] Main article: Tidal stream generator Tidal stream generators make use of the kinetic energy of moving water to power turbines, in a similar way to wind turbines that use wind to power turbines.
Some tidal generators can be built into the structures of existing bridges or are entirely submersed, thus avoiding concerns over impact on the natural landscape.
Land constrictions such as straits or inlets can create high velocities at specific sites, which can be captured with the use of turbines. These turbines can be horizontal, vertical, open, or ducted. Using similar technology to wind turbines converting energy in tidal energy is much more efficient.
Close to 10 mph about 8. Tidal barrage Tidal barrages make use of the potential energy in the difference in height or hydraulic head between high and low tides.
When using tidal barrages to generate power, the potential energy from a tide is seized through strategic placement of specialized dams. When the sea level rises and the tide begins to come in, the temporary increase in tidal power is channeled into a large basin behind the dam, holding a large amount of potential energy.
With the receding tide, this energy is then converted into mechanical energy as the water is released through large turbines that create electrical power through the use of generators.
Dynamic tidal power[ edit ] Main article: Dynamic tidal power Top-down view of a DTP dam. Blue and dark red colors indicate low and high tides, respectively.
Dynamic tidal power or DTP is an untried but promising technology that would exploit an interaction between potential and kinetic energies in tidal flows. It proposes that very long dams for example: Tidal phase differences are introduced across the dam, leading to a significant water-level differential in shallow coastal seas — featuring strong coast-parallel oscillating tidal currents such as found in the UK, China, and Korea.
Tidal lagoon[ edit ] A new tidal energy design option is to construct circular retaining walls embedded with turbines that can capture the potential energy of tides.
The created reservoirs are similar to those of tidal barrages, except that the location is artificial and does not contain a pre-existing ecosystem. The pumping power could be provided by excess to grid demand renewable energy from for example wind turbines or solar photovoltaic arrays.
Excess renewable energy rather than being curtailed could be used and stored for a later period of time. Geographically dispersed tidal lagoons with a time delay between peak production would also flatten out peak production providing near base load production though at a higher cost than some other alternatives such as district heating renewable energy storage.
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