Nearby, in the long-depopulated villages, you can see stirrings of life: In a remote corner of El Salvador, investigators uncovered the remains of a horrible crime — a crime that Washington had long denied.
Executive branch[ edit ] The president of Pakistan, in keeping with the constitutional provision that the state religion is Islam, must be a Muslim. Elected for a five-year term by an Electoral College consisting of members of the Senate and National Assembly and members of the provincial assemblies, the president is eligible for re-election.
But no individual may hold the office for more than two consecutive terms. The president may resign or be impeached and may be removed from office due to incapacity or gross misconduct by a two-thirds vote of the members of the parliament. The president generally acts on the advice of the prime minister but has important residual powers.
One of the most important of these powers—a legacy of General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq —is the president's power to dissolve the National Assembly "in his discretion where, in has arisen in which the Government of the Federation cannot be carried on in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution and an appeal to the electorate is necessary.
Despite this most recent power-stripping, the President remains the ex officio chair of the National Security Councilas per the National Security Act The prime minister is appointed by the members of the National Assembly through a vote. The prime minister is assisted by the Federal Cabinet, a council of ministers whose members are appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister.
The Federal Cabinet comprises the ministers, ministers of state, and advisers.
As of earlythere were thirty-three ministerial portfolios: Legislative branch[ edit ] The bicameral federal legislature consists of the Senate upper house and National Assembly lower house. Pakistan's democracy has no recall method.
However, past governments have been dismissed for corruption by the President's invocation of Article 58 of the Constitution. The President's power to dismiss the Prime Minister and dissolve the National Assembly was removed by the Thirteenth Amendment and partially restored by the Seventeenth Amendment.
Senate[ edit ] The Senate is a permanent legislative body with equal representation from each of the four provinces, elected by the members of their respective provincial assemblies.
The chairman of the Senate, under the constitution, is next in line to act as president should the office become vacant and until such time as a new president can be formally elected. Both the Senate and the National Assembly can initiate and pass legislation except for finance bills.
Only the National Assembly can approve the federal budget and all finance bills.
In the case of other bills, the president may prevent passage unless the legislature in joint sitting overrules the president by a majority of members of both houses present and voting. Unlike the National Assembly, the Senate cannot be dissolved by the President.
National Assembly[ edit ] National Assembly of Pakistan Members of the National Assembly are elected by universal adult suffrage formerly twenty-one years of age and older but the seventeenth amendment changed it to eighteen years of age.
Seats are allocated to each of the four provinces, the Federally Administered Tribal Areas, and Islamabad Capital Territory on the basis of population. National Assembly members serve for the parliamentary term, which is five years, unless they die or resign sooner, or unless the National Assembly is dissolved.
Although the vast majority of the members are Muslim, about 5 percent of the seats are reserved for minorities, including Christians, Hindus, and Sikhs. Elections for minority seats are held on the basis of separate electorates at the same time as the polls for Muslim seats during the general elections.
Member 3 Now withstanding anything contained in clause 1 or clause 2the President shall appoint the most senior Judge of the Supreme Court as the Chief Justice of Pakistan.
The chief justice and judges of the Supreme Court may remain in office until age sixty-five: It consists of 8 Muslim judges appointed by the President of Pakistan after consulting the Chief Justice of this Court, from amongst the serving or retired judges of the Supreme Court or a High Court or from amongst persons possessing the qualifications of judges of a High Court.Founded in , University of California Press, Journals and Digital Publishing Division, disseminates scholarship of enduring value.
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Short of wearing out the subject of politics in sports (Bad Sports, , and A People’s History of Sports in the United States, ), sports analyst Zirin focuses here on the pushback by athletes and fans around the globe against injustices they see, whether in sports alone or on the larger political stage.
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