We equip business leaders — across all major functions, in every industry and enterprise size — with the insights, advice and tools to achieve their mission-critical priorities and build the successful organizations of tomorrow. IT leaders must develop a decision framework to systematically examine use-case scenarios for adopting cloud computing. Such a framework forms the backbone of any successful cloud strategy. The decision framework starts with an understanding of the type of application and its technical characteristics, the needs and constraints of the associated data, and the integration of the application and data with other systems.
Please help improve it by rewriting it in an encyclopedic style. February Learn how and when to remove this template message The term black carbon was coined by Tihomir Novakovreferred to as "the godfather of black carbon studies" by James Hansenin the s.
Faraday recognized that soot was composed of carbon and that it was produced by the incomplete combustion of carbon-containing fuels. The term elemental carbon has been used in conjunction with thermal and wet chemical determinations and the term graphitic carbon suggests the presence of graphite -like micro-crystalline structures in soot as evidenced by Raman Spectroscopy.
This act led to dramatic reductions of soot concentrations in the United Kingdom which were followed by similar reductions in US cities like Pittsburgh and St.
The steady reduction of smoke pollution in the industrial cities of Europe and United States caused a shift in research emphasis away from soot emissions and the almost complete neglect of black carbon as a significant aerosol constituent, at least in the United States.
In the s, however, a series of studies substantially changed this picture and demonstrated that black carbon as well as the organic soot components continued to be a large component in urban aerosols across the United States and Europe   Impacts of cloud technologies cloud which led to improved controls of these emissions.
In the less-developed regions of the world where there were limited or no controls on soot emissions the air quality continued to degrade as the population increased.
It was not generally realized until many years later that from the perspective of global effects the emissions from these regions were extremely important.
The first indications of the role of black carbon in a larger, global context came from studies of the Arctic Haze phenomena. A purely scattering aerosol will reflect energy that would normally be absorbed by the earth-atmosphere system back to space and leads to a cooling effect.
As one adds an absorbing component to the aerosol, it can lead to a heating of the earth-atmosphere system if the reflectivity of the underlying surface is sufficiently high.
Early studies of the effects of aerosols on atmospheric radiative transfer on a global scale assumed a dominantly scattering aerosol with only a small absorbing component, since this appears to be a good representation of naturally occurring aerosols.
However, as discussed above, urban aerosols have a large black carbon component and if these particles can be transported on a global scale then one would expect a heating effect over surfaces with a high surface albedo like snow or ice.
Furthermore, if these particles are deposited in the snow an additional heating effect would occur due to reductions in the surface albedo. Measuring and modeling spatial distribution[ edit ] Levels of Black carbon are most often determined based on the modification of the optical properties of a fiber filter by deposited particles.
Either filter transmittance, filter reflectance or a combination of transmittance and reflectance is measured. Aethalometers are frequently used devices that optically detect the changing absorption of light transmitted through a filter ticket, however, Sunset Laboratory produces the only EPA Verified Black Carbon Monitor.
A multiangle absorption photometer takes into account both transmitted and reflected light. Alternative methods rely on satellite based measurements of optical depth for large areas or more recently on spectral noise analysis for very local concentrations.
One of the major uncertainties in modeling the effects of the Arctic haze on the solar radiation balance was limited knowledge of the vertical distributions of black carbon.
During and as part of the NOAA AGASP program, the first measurements of such distributions in the Arctic atmosphere were obtained with an aethalometer which had the capability of measuring black carbon on a real-time basis.
The vertical profiles showed either a strongly layered structure or an almost uniform distribution up to eight kilometers with concentrations within layers as large as those found at ground level in typical mid-latitude urban areas in the United States.
Experiments showed that soils without high amounts of black carbon are significantly less fertile than soils that contain black carbon. An example for this increased soil fertility are the Terra preta soils of central Amazonia, which are presumably human-made by pre-Columbian native populations.
Terra Preta soils have on average three times higher soil organic matter SOM content, higher nutrient levels and a better nutrient retention capacity than surrounding infertile soils. Nonetheless, for a sustainable management, a slash-and-char practice would be better in order to prevent high emissions of CO2 and volatile black carbon.
Furthermore, the positive effects of this type of agriculture are counteracted if used for large patches so that soil erosion is not prevented by the vegetation.
By region[ edit ] Developed countries were once the primary source of black carbon emissions, but this began to change in the s with the adoption of pollution control technologies in those countries.
Today, the majority of black carbon emissions are from developing countries  and this trend is expected to increase.
This results in regional hotspots of atmospheric solar heating due to black carbon. Approximately three billion people live in these hotspots. Result of a biofuel cooking.How AI is changing the face of Cloud Computing. Artificial Intelligence (or AI for short) is having a dramatic impact on Cloud Computing, from creating increased demand for specialized Cloud-based compute intensive workloads for deploying Machine Learning (ML), and Deep Learning (DL) applications; enabling developers to create “Intelligent” applications leveraging simple cloud-based AI.
This statistic shows the vendor revenue of the public cloud market from to In , revenues from the public cloud market are expected to reach combined billion U.S. dollars. Dec 27, · I often try to switch my own lens, imagining myself as a doctor or a professor, in order to understand the potential of my own products. Artificial intelligence (AI) is the perfect example of how. Chemically, black carbon (BC) is a component of fine particulate matter (PM ≤ µm in aerodynamic diameter).Black carbon consists of pure carbon in several linked forms. It is formed through the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, biofuel, and biomass, and is emitted in both anthropogenic and naturally occurring soot.. Black carbon causes human morbidity and premature mortality.
Dec 27, · I often try to switch my own lens, imagining myself as a doctor or a professor, in order to understand the potential of my own products.
Artificial intelligence (AI) is the perfect example of how. Cloud security is one of those things that everyone knows they need, but few people understand how to deal with. I. The good news is that it’s actually pretty simple, and somewhat similar to security for your enterprise systems.
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Chemically, black carbon (BC) is a component of fine particulate matter (PM ≤ µm in aerodynamic diameter).Black carbon consists of pure carbon in several linked forms. It is formed through the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, biofuel, and biomass, and is emitted in both anthropogenic and naturally occurring soot..
Black carbon causes .