One of the earliest written records of a sign language is from the fifth century BC, in Plato 's Cratyluswhere Socrates says: Chirogram from Chirologia, In Britain, manual alphabets were also in use for a number of purposes, such as secret communication,  public speaking, or communication by deaf people. Arthrological systems had been in use by hearing people for some time;  some have speculated that they can be traced to early Ogham manual alphabets.
Target and Approach Andreea Cervatiuc University of Calgary Calgary, Canada Introduction A widely accepted distinction related to vocabulary knowledge refers to lexical "receptive knowledge", which involves the ability to understand a word while listening or reading, versus "productive knowledge", the ability to use a word in speaking or writing Nation,p.
As a rule of thumb, the receptive vocabulary is at least twice the size of the productive vocabulary.
This article looks at the average receptive vocabulary size of adult native English speakers, inquires into whether non-native speakers can acquire a receptive vocabulary size comparable to that of native speakers, and discusses the amount and type of words needed for reading comprehension in a second language.
The purpose of the article is to provide teachers of English as a second language with the key research findings suggesting that acquiring a native-like receptive vocabulary size in a second language as an adult learner is an ambitious but achievable goal and to justify why direct vocabulary teaching of the most frequent words is a feasible proposition.
The Receptive Vocabulary Size of Adult Native English Speakers Researchers are beginning to reach a consensus regarding the average receptive vocabulary size of native First language acquisition dissertation speakers.
A word family consists of a base word and its inflected forms and derivations Nation,p.
Zechmeister, Chronis, Cull, D'Anna and Healy express their reservations even about these numbers, cautioning us that they may still be overestimations of the actual vocabulary sizes, as they used a dictionary-sampling method and a multiple-choice testing of word knowledge, which is permissive of a certain amount of guessing.
An average size of 17, word families suggests that the "learning burden" of the task associated with direct English vocabulary teaching to non-native speakers is not as daunting as once believed.
Exceptional adult second language learners do achieve vocabulary sizes that are like those of educated native speakers. A recent study Cervatiuc, suggests that the average receptive vocabulary size of highly proficient university-educated non-native English speakers ranges between 13, and 20, base words, being comparable to that of university-educated English native speakers Table 1.
The participants in Cervatiuc's study were 20 adult independent immigrants, who arrived in Canada after the age of 18 and who managed to re-access the professions they had in their home countries.
The group average age upon arrival was Cervatiuc used the same instrument to assess receptive vocabulary size as Goulden, Nation, and Readnamely the Webster Third Vocabulary Size Test. Comparison between the findings of Cervatiuc's study and those of Goulden, Nation, and Read Cervatiuc's study Sample: It is more likely that the average educated native speaker has a vocabulary of around 17, base words and has acquired them at the average rate of about two or three words per day.
If native speakers do in fact acquire vocabulary at this relatively slow rate, it would seem that for second language learners, direct teaching and learning of vocabulary is a feasible proposition.
A longitudinal study by Milton and Meara found that adult learners of English as a second language could learn base words per year.
The study involved 53 European exchange students on Lingua and Erasmus program in a British university. Most students were studying management science and some were studying English language and literature teaching. A vocabulary acquisition rate of base words per year would allow adult learners of English as a second language to achieve a native-like vocabulary size of 17, base words in 6.
This rate may not be representative of the average English as a second language learner, since the participants in Milton and Meara were top students and exceptional learners, but it suggests that acquisition of a native-like vocabulary size in a second language as an adult learner is an achievable goal.
Since some words are so rare and knowing them will not make a big difference in understanding written texts, recent research has suggested that it is better for learners at the beginning of their second language acquisition journey to focus on learning the most frequent words first and then move on to acquiring the vocabulary related to their interests and needs.Brakstad, Marit Valand: Language Development in Children at-risk of Dyslexia.
A study on the oral language of children with weak reading and writing skills: NTNU, Christiansen, Marianne: Attentional Control, Working Memory and Language Aptitude. Essay story about ghost hunter la crise de dissertation abstracts cultural diversity in schools essays.
Short essay about social media First and second language acquisition essay. 5 stars based on reviews alphabetnyc.com Essay. This dissertation investigates the acquisition of language-specific constraints on scope interpretation by Japanese preschool children.
Several constructions in Japanese do not allow scope interpretations that the corresponding English sentences do allow. Groups of deaf people have used sign languages throughout history. One of the earliest written records of a sign language is from the fifth century BC, in Plato's Cratylus, where Socrates says: "If we hadn't a voice or a tongue, and wanted to express things to one another, wouldn't we try to make signs by moving our hands, head, and the rest of our body, just as dumb people do at present?".
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the first language is a major component and participatory factor in the acquisition of the second language and its maintenance.
This prior knowledge of how language works and the.