Ferdinand Pauwels — Martin Luther hammers his 95 theses to the door Many major events caused Europe to change around the start of the 16th century, starting with the Fall of Constantinople inthe fall of Muslim Spain and the discovery of the Americas inand Martin Luther 's Protestant Reformation in Tsardom of Russia[ edit ] Main article: Tsardom of Russia Russia experienced territorial growth through the 17th century, which was the age of Cossacks.
But if you're retired, or are approaching retirementfixed-income instruments must move into the driver's seat. At this stage, preservation of capital with a guaranteed income stream becomes the most important goal.
Today, investors need to mix things up and get exposure to different asset classes to keep their portfolio incomes high, reduce risk and stay ahead of inflation.
Even the great Benjamin Grahamthe father of value investingsuggested a portfolio mix of stocks and bonds for later-stage investors. If he were alive today, Graham would probably sing the same tune, especially since the advent of new and diverse products and strategies for income-seeking investors.
In this article, we'll lay down the road map for creating a modern fixed-income portfolio. Some Historical Perspective From the very beginning, we are taught that stock returns outpace returns from bonds. While historically this has been shown to be true, the discrepancy between the two returns is not as great as one might think.
Using more than 60 staggered year intervals from tothe study showed that stock returns, after inflation was accounted for, measured an increase of about 5.
For example, take a look at the yield curves for the major bond classes as they stood on Nov. Figure 1 Figure 3 There are several conclusions that can be reached from a review of these charts: The long or year bond is not a very attractive investment; in the case of Treasuriesthe year bond currently yields no more than a six-month Treasury bill.
High-grade corporate bonds provide an attractive yield pick-up to Treasuries 5. In a taxable account, municipal bonds can offer attractive tax-equivalent yields to government and corporate bonds, if not better. This involves an extra calculation to confirm, but a good estimate is to take the coupon yield and divide it by 0.
With short-term yields so close to those of long-term yields, it simply doesn't make sense to commit to the long bond anymore. Locking up your money for another 20 years to gain a paltry extra 20 or 30 basis points just doesn't pay enough to make the investment worthwhile. This presents an opportunity for fixed-income investors, because purchases can be made in the five- to year maturity range, then reinvested at prevailing rates when those bonds come due.
When these bonds mature is also a natural time to reassess the state of the economy and adjust your portfolio as needed. The current relationship between short-term and long-term yields also illustrates the utility of a bond ladder.
Laddering is investing in eight to 10 individual issues, with one coming due every year. This can prevent you from having to forecast interest rates into the future, as maturities will be spread out over the yield curvewith opportunities to readjust every year as your visibility gets clearer.
Equities Adding some solid, high-dividend paying equities to form a balanced portfolio is becoming a valuable new model for late-stage investing, even for folks well into their retirement years.
A simple stock screener can be used to find companies that offer high- dividend payouts while also meeting certain value and stability requirements, such as those fit for a conservative investor seeking to minimize idiosyncratic stock-specific and market risks.
Below is a list of companies with the following example screen criteria: All pay a yield of at least 2. All stocks have a beta of less than 1, which means they have traded with less volatility than the overall market.
This filter removes companies whose dividends are artificially high due to deteriorating earnings fundamentals. A basket of stocks from different sectors can minimize certain market risks by investing in all parts of the economy.
Any myths about high-dividend stocks being stodgy, non-performers are just that — myths. Steady amounts of cash income, lower volatility and higher returns? They aren't sounding so stodgy anymore, are they? Real Estate Nothing like a nice piece of property offering rich rent income to enhance the golden years.
Rather than turning landlord, though, you're better off investing in real estate investment trusts REITs. These high-yielding securities provide liquiditytrade like stocks and have the added benefit of being in a distinct asset class from bonds and equities. REITs are a way to diversify our modern fixed-income portfolio against market risks in stocks and credit risks in bonds.
High-Yield Bonds High-yield bondsaka " junk bonds ," are another potential avenue. True, these debt instruments offering above-market yields are very difficult to invest in individually with confidence, but by choosing a bond fund with consistent operating results, you can devote a portion of your portfolio to high-yield bond issues as a way to boost fixed-income returns.
See " Junk Bonds: Everything You Need to Know. Look to find a fund with little to no premium over the NAV for an extra margin of safety when investing here.Education reform is the name given to the goal of changing public alphabetnyc.comically, reforms have taken different forms because the motivations of reformers have differed.
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